Journal: Remote Sensing


Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models have been extensively used to conduct flood simulations for investigating flood depth and extent maps. However, the 1D models cannot simulate many other flood characteristics, such as flood velocity, duration, arrival time and recession time when the flow is not restricted within the channel. These flood characteristics cannot be disregarded as they play an important role in developing flood mitigation and evacuation strategies. This study formulates a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model combined with remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) approach to generate additional flood characteristic maps that cannot be produced with 1D models. The model was applied to a transboundary river of Deg Nullah in Pakistan to simulate an extreme flood event experience in 2014. The flood extent images from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and observed flood extents were used to evaluate the model performance. Moreover, an entropy distance-based approach was proposed to facilitate the integrated multivariate flood vulnerability classification. The simulated 2D flood modeling results showed a good agreement with the flood extents registered by MODIS and the observed ones. The northwest parts of Deg Nullah near Seowal, Dullam Kahalwan and Zafarwal were the most vulnerable areas due to high flood depths and prolonged flooding duration. Whereas high flood velocities, short flood arrival time, prolonged flood duration and recession times were observed in the upper reach of Deg Nullah thereby making it the most susceptible, critical and vulnerable region to flooding events.